Here are the
study guide answers for 3 videos:
Introduction to the WaterFit/Speedo Aquatic Fitness System
Video Course #1
Section 1, Part A:
Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. F.I.T.T. principle - When designing an exercise program consider the
Frequency (how often to work out), Intensity (how hard to work), Time (how
long is the
workout) and Type of activity, to determine if the program will meet
for training by the ACSM or your health care provider. p. 6.
2. Deep Water - Water depth measured on the individual
"standing" in a vertical
position, when the lungs are submerged, usually about armpit depth and
deeper. At this
depth, the feet may be touching the bottom lightly or not at all. p.6.
Hydrophobic - Fear of water. p.7.
Hydrostatic pressure - Is the pressure exerted by the fluid on any object
immersed in a
fluid. Hydrostatic pressure exerts a multi-dimensional force which is
proportional to the
depth. The deeper into the water we go, the more pressure is exerted
at the bottom of the
object. The net result is an upward force in the object, which results in
the buoyant force
upwards (Brancazio, 1984). p. 7.
Properties of water - The unique characteristics of water that affect the
exercise in water including inertia, buoyancy, action/reaction, and form,
wave drag resistance. p.9.
Shallow water depth - Water that is navel to nipple depth measured with
standing on the bottom of the pool. p.10.
Transitional depth water - Is defined as a depth that is nipple to neck
depth, where the
lungs are submerged and the feet can touch the bottom. p.11.
Water fitness or water exercise program - Exercises performed primarily in
orientation in shallow or deep water. This type of exercise program
usually does not
include swimming skills, which are based on efficient propulsion
horizontally through the
water. Water exercise instead uses movements that amplify drag by
body to create resistance. The goal of this program is to create
sufficient intensity to
provide fitness training adaptations in oxygen consumption (V02), muscular
strength/endurance, flexibility and body composition. p.11.
Water specific - Movements, exercises or equipment designed to amplify the
of water by changing the water's effect on the body. p.11.
3. Abduction - To move laterally away from the midline of the body,
AWAY from the midline of the body. p.5.
Adduction - To move medially toward the midline of the body, drawing INTO
midline of the body. p.5.
Extension - To straighten or increase the angle between two joints, return
position (or neutral position) from flexion. p.6.
Flexion - To bend or decrease the angle between two parts, drawing of two
Functional position - The least painful, most stable position of the spine
particular activity or exercise. p.7.
Hyperextension - Extending beyond anatomical position or neutral joint
4. Eccentric contraction - A contraction in which a muscle exerts force,
and is overcome by a resistance (ACE, 1991). p.6
Glenohumeral & Scapular Muscles - The muscle group that provides full
motion of the scapulohumeral and scapular motion for normal overhead
elevation of the
arm in flexion or in abduction and include: Full range, lateral rotation -
and minor, Latissimus dorsi, Teres major and minor, and Subscapularis;
Full range, medial
rotation - Teres minor, Infraspinatus and Posterior Deltoid. p.7.
Isometric contraction - A contraction in which a muscle exerts force but
does not change
in length. p. 8.
Muscular strength training - The type of training that is developed by
weight (that requires maximum or nearly maximum tension development) with
repetitions. p. 8.
Muscular endurance - According to ACSM, it is the time limit
of a person's ability to
maintain a specific force or power level while performing muscular work.
This type of
training is best developed by using lighter weights with a greater number
5. ACSM Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Fitness for healthy adults
Frequency: 3-5 days per week
Intensity: 55 to 65% - 90% maximum heart rate (HR max)
or 40 to 50%-85% maximum oxygen uptake reserve (V02 R) or heart rate
* The lower intensity values, i.e., 55-65% of HRmax or 40-49% of V02R
or heart rate max reserve, are most applicable to unfit people.
20-60 minutes continuous or intermittent (minimum of 10 minute bouts
accumulated throughout the day).
Lower intensity activity should be performed 30 minutes or more, while
people doing higher intensity training should train at least 20 minutes or
"Total fitness" is achieved more effectively with exercise
sessions of longer
durations. Higher intensity sessions may place participants at
for injury and be perceived as being "too hard", resulting in
attendance or high drop out rates. "Moderate intensity activity
duration is recommended for adults not training for athletic
Type/Mode: Any activity that uses large muscle groups continuously and is
and aerobic in nature. Walking, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing,
stair climbing, aerobic dance exercise, endurance game activities.
Older Adult Recommendations (ACSM, 1998b):
Maximizing the quality and amount of physical activity in the life of an
older adult includes
adding the same types of cardiorespiratory exercises as those recommended
adults. These activities should be included regularly in an active
lifestyle to reduce the rate
of age-related declines in numerous physical functions. The Center for
and the ACSM recommend the lifestyle activities be performed at an
intensity of light to
moderate. However, to make improvements in the cardiovascular system,
high intensity exercise may be required.
Exercise Recommendations for the Very Old and Frail Populations (ACSM,
Aerobic training is the most difficult prescription for this age group due
to the many
physical challenges and difficulties in being able to move safely and
Minimal muscle power must first be developed to perform tasks like getting
out of a chair,
and maintaining erect posture while moving through space. It is
suggested that for this
population, in order to prepare the body for more aerobic activity, first
joint stability and balance. When moderate intensity aerobic training can
guidelines are as follows:
Frequency: 3 days per week
Intensity: Fairly light to somewhat hard
Time: At least 20 minutes
Type/Mode: Due to the functional nature, walking is preferred.
Intensity can be
progressed by walking hills or stairs. Water exercise and water walking
recommended. Additional overload can be achieved by performing dance
pushing a weighted or occupied wheelchair. Alternative may include
arm or leg ergometry
machines and seated stepping machines.
Section 1, Part B:
1. Sternocleidomastoid Forearm extensors
Trapezius (superior) Gluteus medius, maximus
Levator scapulae Hamstrings
Trapezius (medial) Gastrocnemius
Rhomboid (minor, major) Deltoid (posterior,middle)
Teres major Erectus spinae
Trapezius (inferior) Triceps brachii
2. Rectus Abdominus, Obliques, Erector spinae
3. a. Shoulder Abduction
b. Hip extension
c. Plantar flexion
d. Neck rotation
4. a. Trapezius, Deltoids, Biceps, Wrist flexors, possibly pectorals
b. Scapular elevation, shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, wrist
flexion, possible shoulder horizontal adduction.
c. Triceps, Latissimus dorsi to stabilize load above the ground.
d. Trapezius, Deltoids, Biceps, Wrist flexors, possibly pectorals
e. All the muscles in the shoulder girdle and upper back, along
with the trunk core stabilizers.
5. Muscles of the upper back, the trunk corset and gluteal groups.
Section 1, Part C:
1. b. elicit a training intensity below ACSM guidelines for
2 d. energy requirements would be the same for both environments.
3. b. maintenance of their current 5K race time.
4. b. have been shown to improve skills such as sit to stand, balance and
5. a. higher than on land.
6. b. improved for both deep-water running and treadmill running on land.
7. a. steady state.
Section 2 : Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. Land: Gravity constantly affects the body downward
Environment is fairly constant against the body
Air resistance is negligible
Water: Effect of gravity against the body varies with water depth and
Water currents and hydrostatic pressure creates a variety of dynamic
against the body.
Water resistance is greater than air and varies with the speed and size of
surface area moving through it. p. 51.
2. Muscular conditioning- Resistance can be increased or decreased using
variations in speed and surface area.
Cardiorespiratory endurance - Heart rates may be different during exercise
water when compared to a land exercise performed at the same V02
a combination of heart rates along with RPE and the "talk test"
Flexibility - Teach functional ranges of motion using the support of
participants work within a safe range for health.
Functional training for activities of daily living - Buoyancy provides
balance skills in shallow water, while functional activities such as
be performed using the resistance of water. Be sure that the
training drill uses the
properties to create a training effect that improves land skills. p. 52.
3. Positive: Relaxation, pain reduction, increased range of motion,
and endurance, improved cardiovascular endurance and feeling of
Contraindications: Individuals with diminished respiratory functions or
or vaginal infections, Hypertension, Severe hypotension, Infectious
allergies to infectious diseases, and Post-surgery open wounds. p.53.
4. Gravitational forces are decreased with water depth changes:
Waist depth (lungs not submerged)--50% decrease; feet are used as a
base of support .
Above xiphoid process, lungs submerged --85%
decrease; feet less stable base of support.
Neck-deep water-90% decrease; without buoyancy equipment, feet less
stable base of support, suspended with buoyancy equipment feet are not
a base of support.
Properties: Buoyancy and Hydrostatic Pressure
5. Hydrostatic pressure makes breathing more difficult.
Cue your students to breathe, fully inflating the lungs against the
that students don't hold their breath.
Teach your students that their body will normally rise on inhalation and
6. Land Exercise: Water Exercise:
Assisted Resisted Assisted Resisted
Triceps Biceps Abductors Adductors
Abdominals Erector spinae Deltoids Latissimus Dorsi
Adductors Abductors Biceps Triceps
7. Power is the rate of doing work, where the time required to do a given
of work is part of the equation (power = work done/time). Power is
the result of
exerting more force during a movement.
speed, decreasing water's resistance on the body
size of the movement, decreasing the drag of the surface area
stop traveling to decrease affect of water's currents against the body
9. Freeze frame: Shallow depth. Walking to jogging in a variety of
styles (Zig Zag, Scoot Giant steps, walk backwards) and give a 1, 2, 3,
count to FREEZE
or stop. Stabilize against the pushing and pulling current.
Progress the challenge by
standing on one leg or bringing your arms out of the water on the FREEZE.
Stork Stance: Partner work. One partner stationary sculling
for stability as the
other partner runs around her (both directions) creating a current.
Progress the drill by
standing on one leg and then bring arms out of the water. Feel the
core stabilizers engage
and help provide stability against the turbulence. Change roles.
Jog back and forth, changing directions without allowing the current to
subside, increase the repeating pattern and increase the speed. Feel
it become harder
and harder to continue to push against the current. What training
objective could you
target by performing this drill?
Inertia Circle: Work a circle moving in the same direction.
Feel the current carry you
along. Reverse the direction and move into the current and feel the
The Snake: Work a snake in single or double lines and feel the
directional changes of
the current challenge your balance and create work, as you power through
10. Traveling in the center or back of the group may be less work than
leading, due to the strong currents. Put the stronger students on
the outside of
the group, but be watchful of the weaker students that may be carried
even knocked off their feet! p. 60.
11. Walk forward with a bent knee. Stop. Stabilize. Walk
forward extending the
leg and pulling it down (lead with the heel) as you move forward.
Stationary jog, sculling for balance and stability, extend the leg and
kick in front.
Rock side to side, arms pressing out at sides, extend the legs to a kick
side to side
extending the arms long and working in opposition. Resistance increases
Rock forward and back, sculling at sides, enlarge the move and extend the
enlarge the scull for balance. Resistance increases
Neutral stance, arms short lever (movement from elbow) "playing the
piano" extend the
arms to long lever (movement from shoulder) and continue playing. (Watch
alignment of the extended position. Don't lean forward!) Resistance
Section 3: Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. Facility Check.
Check for good condition: lighting, signs, general maintenance/upkeep.
Pool entry, deck surfaces, bottom surfaces, gutters, grates and electrical
Depth markers, safety ropes, safety equipment should be in good condition.
Environment: air and water temperatures, weather, shower facilities
balance of water should be clean and within safety standards.
Staff Safety Training.
Teach personal safety skills for the client; buddy system and recovery to
Develop teamwork with the professional rescue staff.
Development of an effective emergency system with pool staff and community
(Emergency Medical System).
Document injury or incident occurrences.
Listen to clients to keep the program healthy using personal
assessments, liability releases.
2. Parking Lot - well lit, entry way easily identifiable, curbs
Lobby - clean, signs adequate?
Dressing Rooms -clean, good lighting, adequate storage for clothing.
benches, lockers, doorways in good condition, minimal standing water on
floor or around
drains, floor has non-slip surface, signs to pool, showers, etc.,
separate wet and dry areas for dressing and grooming?
Pool Deck-uncluttered, clear pathway to entries, depth markings easy to
surface of deck is not slippery, cleaned regularly, entry steps, ladders,
etc. in good
condition, safety equipment in good condition, lifeguard easily
identifiable and attainable.
emergency phone easily accessible, spine board and first aid equipment
Pool -water is clean and bottom of pool is easily visible, smell of
minimal, air and water temperature are close to the same (indoor),
acoustics taken into
consideration before using music/microphones, entry into pool is easy for
clients are not staring into the sun at outdoor pools, pool access is
fairly close to dressing
3. To ensure a safe program, instructors can-
Familiarize yourself with the facility's emergency procedures. Train
with the pool staff.
Obtain training in basic rescue and water safety techniques. If no
guard on duty while you
teach, take the extra steps of becoming certified in advanced rescue
Employ the buddy system, use health screening forms, liability releases,
be aware of the
development of safety hazards at the facility.
Wear waterproof sunscreen , sunglasses, hat, and protective clothing when
extended periods of sun. The reflection of the sun on the water is
intense and powerful.
When assessing an emergency situation, remember that the victim's safety
is dependent on
your good judgment. Maintain your own margin of safety. Keep
something between you
and the victim at all times.
Train in spinal injury management and primary life sustaining assistance
(CPR). 95% of
water related spinal injuries occur in the shallow end.
Use visual cues to communicate when acoustics are difficult. Save
Protect your feet and legs on the pool deck and the pool bottom by wearing
Be familiar with the proper use of any equipment you use to enhance your
you are wearing equipment be sure that your mobility to assist a student
is not impaired.
Have all equipment, music and other supplies at pool side before students
leave the pool area unattended when participants are in the water.
THEY ARE YOUR
Three skills to teach students, making their program safer-
Teach recovery to a stand in the water in case students lose their
Teach them how to use the buddy system, especially for non-swimmers.
Guide them to a water depth that's right for their comfort level. (and
4. Heat Exhaustion: Sunbathers and hot tub users can be victims if they
stay too long,
and become dehydrated or overheated. They will appear sweaty, cold,
from heat source. Cool body with wet towels, etc., give sips of
water as tolerated, and
5. Identify rough or slippery areas on decks or in entries to
participants. Include this
information in participant handout.
Instructor should avoid voice overuse and use visual cueing.
Reduce impact movements on deck, wear shock absorbent footwear.
Teach recovery to a stand in the water in case students lose their
Initiate the buddy system, especially for non-swimmers.
6. Identify the pool entrance/exits and contour (depth) and working area.
Recommend wearing shoes for safety and solid footing.
Have them bring water bottles poolside for sips during class.
Emphasize that this is an individually challenging workout and to think of
water as a trainer, the harder one presses, the harder it (the water)
Encourage students to modify or change that move to make it comfortable.
Describe how to monitor intensity using the Talk Test, RPE, Heart Rate
Coach them find and practice neutral stance with ears, shoulder, hips,
If they begin to feel cool, suggest that they jog.
7. Train with a lifeguard on duty (if possible).
Know basic personal safety skills.
Swimming rescues with direct contact are for Trained Lifeguards only
Know how to remove a person from the water to administer CPR if necessary.
Have a pool side phone to be able to contact EMS if necessary.
Include reciprocal training for safety if you plan to go into the water
Equip the site with tools such as a shepherd's crook.
8. What are the objectives for the class, exercise or student?
What property of water creates the work?
Is the exercise or program safe and effective?
Are my students staying warm?
Can we do this better or differently?
Section 4: Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. Recovery to a stand:
For a fall backwards: Pull one knee to the chest, scoop arms under and
lift the chin up and stand.
For a fall backwards: Turn head to the side, roll to back and repeat the
skill for fall
2. External or factors such as temperature and buoyancy may affect heart
Heart rate may not accurately reflect intensity. Lower rates may
participants to overwork.
Concepts may not be easily explained or understood. A heart rate chart
adjusted rates should be easily accessible for reference.
It may be difficult for participants to accurately find a pulse.
3. Include lower body movement in the exercise.
Wear extra clothing such as a thermal vest or tights.
Drink water to stay hydrated.
4. TO -
increase the surface area of hands for effective support and balance
assist with upper body posture.
enhance action/reaction, to help with changes direction or adjust body
provide, "on demand" variable resistance for upper
body muscular conditioning.
5. Movement example: Scissors Traveling forward
Slow down, make the movement smaller and stop traveling (hold stationary)
Modify by walking legs forward and backward or by using hand buoys for
Copyright WaterFit, 2000. All right reserved.
Specificity of Training & Deep Water
Section 1, Part A: Study
Guide Suggested Answers
1. Name 3 land activities that would be effective for targeting
Walking, bike riding, running, skiing
2. List 3 water specific movements that target cardiorespiratory fitness.
Walking, Scissors, Jumping, Jogging manipulated through the S.W.E.A.T.
3. Name 3 training methods for targeting cardiorespiratory fitness.
Continuous, Interval and Go Easy/Go Hard (intervals paced by individual)
4. Name 4 muscles that need strengthening.
Muscles that need Strengthening:
5. Name 4 muscles that need stretching.
Muscles that need Stretching:
6. When targeting muscular conditioning, it's important to stay warm while
an isolated muscle group. What are 3 ways to stay warm while
muscular work in water?
Jog in a stationary position or use the legs vigorously during the
Travel during muscular work
Alternate stationary sets with active cardio sets
7. Briefly explain the application of S.W.E.A.T. for targeting muscular
Use the "S" in the formula to increase resistance.
Adjust surface area of the limbs or add surface area equipment for
Adjust speed to increase or decrease resistance levels.
Find the speed, surface area and resistance level where you feel the work
or "somewhat hard".
Use the "W" in the formula to progress resistance.
Change working positions Rebound, Neutral, Suspended to target different
body muscle groups.
In shallow water, use "squats" and fast "sit to stand
ups" to overload upper body
groups such as Latissimus Dorsi (squats) and Deltoids (sit to stand up).
In deep water, use "power pops" to overload Latissimus Dorsi
during upper body
work and Gluteaus Maximus during a "power pop" scissors.
Use the "E" in the formula for functional strength.
Enlarge the joint range of motion, contracting the muscles through full
motion. For maximum benefit and strength, muscles should be trained
entire range (Graves, 1989).
??? the "A", working Around the joint, in the formula???
It's important to isolate the muscles targeted for work. Changing
slightly may still target the same muscle groups, but in a slightly
using slightly different fibers. Remember, specificity of training.
The muscles will
get stronger in the plane and range of motion that they are trained, so be
target functional ranges and planes for better living on land.
Use the "T" in the formula to progress resistance higher.
To overload further after speed and surface area have been maximized or to
overload stabilizing groups such as the abdominals, travel in the same
the power phase, or use the power phase effort to push or pull the body
the water, dragging the entire body for overload.
8. Briefly explain the difference between Flexibility and Range of Motion.
Flexibility is the range of motion possible about a joint. (ACE, 1991).
Range of Motion is the number of degrees that a joint will allow one of
it's segments to
9. How is the "W" of the S.W.E.A.T. formula used when targeting
Use the "W" to vary impact and range of motion.
Moves such as scissors and jax can be worked in neutral or suspended
(students can wear buoyancy belts), to focus on range of motion and
10. In shallow water, what muscle is being stretched during this exercise?
One leg extended forward, hips back. Give 2 progressions for this
Hamstrings stretch progression (in shallow water)
Low In shallow water, extend leg forward, heel on the floor, hips back
Hop on 1 leg, Neutral position moving backwards (T.):
Extend leg forward, push hips back and "crawl them up the wall"
Stop traveling and assist stretch with a step, push down and release.
Assist stretch with stable buoyancy equipment placed under the thigh (S.).
Assist stretch with buoyancy placed near ankle (S.E.).
Leap sideways in neutral position, traveling across the pool, enlarging
each time. Leap diagonally and repeat. (S.W.E.A.T.).
11. What type of fitness objective would target weight control and a
composition? Give 3 examples of ways to target this objective in the
Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training
Scissors through S.W.E.A.T. formula in deep or shallow water
Jogging through S.W.E.A.T. formula in shallow or deep water
Jumping in shallow water through S.W.E.A.T.
Bicycling in deep water varied through S.W.E.A.T.
12. List 3 activities of daily living (ADL) on land and list an exercise
progression in the
water that could provide training for performance gains.
Use the Aquatic step to practice stepping up and down, progress by
speed and number of repetitions.
Begin by walking through water in shallow water and progress by increasing
speed, enlarging the size of the step and traveling faster
Rock side to side and gradually increase the range of motion and then
Section 1, Part B:
Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. List 4 examples of how the water properties affect the body differently
comparing shallow water to deep water.
Properties such as action/reaction produce a more pronounced response
Shallow water speeds may be more difficult to achieve in deep water.
Balance is balanced between the chest and the hips in deep water due to
Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth. There is greater pressure
submersion which may make breathing feel more difficult and may give the
working at a higher intensity than is actually being achieved
The viscosity of deep water will feel heavier. Movements may not be
quickly in deep water and the instructor may need to slow down transitions
so balance can
Speed and acceleration may be limited by the increase in resistance,
action/reaction of movement through the water and eddy resistance.
Buoyancy is exaggerated and is more difficult to overcome while
working to gain
sufficient speed to achieve appropriate intensity.
2. List 5 basic moves used to create deep water exercises.
Jogging-- legs working from the hip using an up/down motion.
Bicycling-- legs work from the hip: up, around & down.
3. What is the deep water acronym used as a reminder of a deep water
(List the skill that each letter represents.)
A.B.Y.S.S. S., Deep water orientation and proper body alignment
A. = Adjust the buoyancy for neutral stance.
B. = Breathe against hydrostatic pressure.
Y. = Yield to the bottomless environment.
S. = Scull (balance and locomotion).
S. = Synergize or coordinate arms and legs.
S. = Safety Skills practice.
4. The "W" in the deep water is different than in shallow water.
List 3 differences.
W. = Working positions:
Body position in relation to the surface of the water
Arm positions in relation to the surface:
"Power Pops" are vertical propulsion work, using powerful
moves to lift the body upwards and catch before descending
5. What property of water makes traveling in transitional depth more
6. What are the 2 ways to work transitional depth?
1. Shallow water moves, modified for the new depth and additional
2. By using a buoyancy belt, you can combine both shallow and deep water
modified movements to maximize this versatile water depth.
7. List 2 modifications of shallow water exercises when performed in
Walking: Movement speed is slower due to buoyancy
Hands work near the waist, using a breaststroke action, with thumbs up,
enough speed to propel the body forward. In this depth, the work is
performed by the arms, because buoyancy is so great, the feet are not
Jogging: Scull near the hips to increase lift, and release travel jogging
propulsion jogs to maximize intensity. Land tall.
Kicking: Scull near the hips, use scooping to pull hips down for balance
kick to the rear. Check kick height to prevent going beyond a safe
motion. Land tall.
Rocking: Instead of leaning forward and back away from the body
center, rock by
standing tall, working from the trunk, so you can land tall and optimize
Jumping: Use the scoop motion with the hands on landing to bring
back down to the bottom.
Scissors: Start tall and center, use a flat scull and jump to a
Land tall in the center and repeat the jump scissors leading with the
Section 2: Study Guide Suggested Answers:
1. What are the 3 important responsibilities of a responsive teacher?
To teach the skills correctly
To coach progressions using positive, specific, corrective feedbncak
To respond with modifications
2. List 3 positive reasons for teaching from the deck.
Easy to see students and provide feedback.
Provides quick visual cues with less instructor voice stress.
Allows the instructor to observe students and pace the workout
according to their fitness level.
New students tend to learn the skills more quickly with visual and
3. List some deck tools you might use to help you teach more effectively
Shoes, a stool, hand support, microphone
4. Cueing for proper body alignment and intensity regulation are two
coaching tips for your students. What are some good verbal cues for
Body alignment cues: Chin in, chest up, shoulders down and back; Ears,
hips lined up.
Intensity regulation cues:
S= Slow Down
S= make the move Smaller
S= Stabilize and check balance and posture
S= Substitute with another similar move if you feel discomfort.
5. What would be the most effective teaching method for deep water and
Deck teaching allows students to see you and for you to see your students
responsive teaching can be used.
Section 3: Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. You arrive to teach class and see that the pool water is the clarity of
Is this a problem and if so, what would you do?
Check with the facility attendant to find an alternative site to conduct a
class or lecture.
Find out what the problem is and when it will be corrected.
Discuss the plan for a dryland class or canceling class with students.
2. Your pool operator says the water temperature is 88° F. Why is
information important and how will it affect your workout?
Moderate to vigorous level activity 82-85 degree F°. The water is
warm for this
level of activity, you will need to modify your program for safety by
reducing the level of
intensity and check for good hydration.
3. What are 3 reasons to add equipment to your program?
Modification for safer, more effective performance
Variety and fun!
4. Name 3 items you might include in your pre-class announcement.
Perform a quick survey of health issues you need to know.
Explain the class format
Review equipment being used
Cue proper depth for the class and possible modifications for special
5. The water temperature is 79°F, how would you warm-up your class?
Cold Water Temperatures (below 82°F): Light & Loose Traveling,
Stretching...get them moving!
6. Name the major muscle groups being dynamically stretched in each of the
a. "Jogging with the heels coming up behind the hips".
b. "Breaststroke arms". Upper back and chest (as you pull arms
c. Kick in front...in neutral position". Hamstrings
7. The students in your class would like to lose weight, make their tummy
able to get out of a chair and the bathtub easier and be able to walk
Using the class blueprint, put together a lesson plan for each of these
Lose weight Set: Cardio work
Perform Scissors through all components of S.W.E.A.T. formula
Chair stand and bathtub exit: Lower body muscular endurance
Perform Squats in shallow water. Progress to squats on 1 leg.
Faster walking: Power, and cardio work
Perform Walking through the S.W.E.A.T. formula, emphasizing variations in
8. Give 4 examples of equipment that could be used for its surface area.
9. Why is it important to use buoyancy equipment in deep water?
Provide rest and balanced exercises that do not always have to produce
Encourage proper alignment
Accommodate various body types in one class comfortably
To offer a wider variety of exercises possible.
10. What are 3 objectives for the cardiorespiratory warm-up?
The objective is to progressively increase intensity to enhance deep
temperature and elevate heart rate into the lower end of the training
zone. The cardio
warm-up also progresses stationary moves up the intensity scale and helps
Golden Waves, Leadership Course, Study Guide
Section 3: Physical Activity and Aging
Decreased ability to balance
Less fear of bumping into others
Swelling due to decreased efficiency of blood vessels
Regulatory systems to regulate body temperature are less efficient
Susceptibility to fractures
Gentle support for safer flexibility work
Muscular strength & endurance
Total Hip replacement- Water's buoyancy can assist with balance and
Shoulder, Rotator Cuff injury - Water's resistance can be adjusted during
motion work for the shoulder and when ready, increases in speed and
surface area can
increase resistance for muscular endurance work in the same movement.
Low Back Pain - Buoyancy can be used to regulate impact.
Section 4: ADL Exercise Design Considerations
Task1: Exercise Evaluation and Design
Hip flexion/extension, trunk flexion/extension, neutral spine
Strengthen: Quadiceps/hamstrings, Gluteals; Erector spinae, abdominals,
Trapezius, Latissimus dorsi.
Stretch: Quadiceps/hamstrings; Hip flexors; Pectorals
Pattern: Hip flexion and extension/trunk flexion and extension
Section 5: Exercise Skills & Progressions
Three key points about sculling:
Keep hands fairly flat and under water
Spread fingers like a duck's webbed foot
Move from the center of the body out to about should width
Three reminders for good posture:
Keep chest and head up
Pull shoulders down and back
Keep stomach in and hips pulled under
Part B: Exercise Objectives, Patterns and Coordination Analysis
Flat scull in front of the body near the surface
Flat scull low at the hips
Flat scull in front of the body
Hands push and pull in opposition
Work arms and legs in opposition
Flat scull in the front
Work opposite arms and legs
Flat scull in front
Push down to assist upwards
Set 4: Sit to Stand
Squat, shoulders down & back. Go suspended, hold, curl and stand.
Set 5: Stair climbing & balance
Flat scull with hands
Hold buoyancy bells or wear a buoyancy belt
Part B: Exercise Progression Evaluation
Tug 0' War
One person stands as an anchor
Both participants go suspended
Walk & Jog Clock Squats Progression:
Hand work in the water for balance
Hands work above the surface
Sit to Stand Progressions
Squat and stand
Squat on the step
Clock squat, off then on top of the step
Sit to Stand Leashing
Squat, hold, then curl and stand
Squat, hold, then curl, stand and walk with tugs by the partner
Set 5: Stair Climbing & Balance
Step Climb Up & Down:
Step from various directions
Take hands out of the water
Step Climb Freeze Frame:
Take hands out of the water
Go from balance & hold using 2 legs to single leg stands
Step Jump, Freeze and Walk:
Increase height of jump
Take hands out of water on the hold & balance
Designing Exercise Modifications
Set 1: Walking Warm-up: Three modification for low back pain:
Limit the size of the movement, especially hip extension
Use a buoyancy belt for balance and trunk support
Work arms and legs in straight planes and near the body if needed
Set 2: Joint Energy Range of Motion: Post-Mastectomy modifications
Limit size of movement and speed. Work on control and quality of
Work without gloves, decrease intensity
Decrease time and number of repetitions
Set 3: Cardio Set: Cardiovascular disease modifications
Limit size of movement
Perform the work stationary if needed
Set 4: Freeze Frame: Stroke recovery modifications
Wear a buoyancy belt
Coordinate hands for more balance, limit size of lower body moves
Limit range of motion
Set 5: Liquid Resistance for Upper Body: Neck Pain Modifications
Shorten the lever
Reduce intensity and perhaps remove webbed gloves
Set 6: Play Ball! Gripping, Reaching & Coordination: Modifications for
Increase water depth
Work hands in the water at all times
Reduce time gripping
Set 7: Liquid Chores for fun! Low back pain modifications
Reduce the size of the moves (bring arms and legs in closer to the body)
Allow more time between movement changes and check frequently for
proper body alignment.
Limit speed and begin progressions without using equipment.
Designing Exercise Modifications, Part B
Set 1: Warm-up Progressions. Modifications for arthritis.
Jogging: Keep movements in neutral or suspended or wear a buoyancy
Increase depth to decrease impact
Kicking: Use a buoyancy belt to decrease impact
Hold buoyancy bells for support
Rocking: Decrease range of motion
Scissors: Work in neutral position
Limit range of motion
Jumping: Wear a buoyancy belt
Work in neutral position and limit range of motion
Set 2: Cardio Endurance Intervals. Modifications for obese students.
Limit time in suspended and rebound
Work in waist depth water for control
Limit time working high intensity
Set 3: Walking & Balance. Total hip replacement modifications.
Avoid combination of hip flexion and adduction with internal rotation
Decrease lower body range of motion.
Decrease speed to limit intensity if needed.
Set 4: Sit to Stand. Total hip replacement.
Decrease the range of motion of the squat (do not go beyond 90 degrees)
Limit diagonal moves that would include hip flexion and adduction with
Use buoyancy belt or buoys for support.
Set 5: Stair climbing & balance. Total knee replacement modifications.
Use ski poles or buoyancy bells for balance
Wear a buoyancy belt to decrease impact and weight bearing
Work in straight planes and limit speed to reduce water currents
Set 6: Agility & balance. Modifications for fear of water
Wear a buoyancy belt for support
Hold 2 kickboards
Have the student work in quiet water (no waves) to avoid splashing.
Set 7: Postural Training. Modifications for hypertension.
Decrease intensity by working without gloves or equipment.
Encourage rests as needed (active resting by walking to stay warm)
Set 8: Resistance band progressions. Modifications for Arthritis.
Limit gripping time
Give frequent breaks to rest the hands
Work without the band or using a lower intensity band if the joint feels
Set 9: Lifting, reaching and moving things around. Modifications for
Limit range of motion
Perform the move without weight to decrease overload
Set 10: Range of motion & Flexibility. Modified for limited shoulder
Hold a buoyant dumbbell for support, may be on the affected side only.
Wear a buoyancy belt for full body support.
Work in neutral position for more support and limit arm range of motion.
Section 6: Training formats
Task 1: This is an individual task. Apply your own facility to the
discussed previously in this chapter.
Task 2: Target objective: balance modified for hip replacement client.
Phase 1: Skills development
Develop skills for balance exercises that could include:
Play Ball and grip
Phase 2: Skills, Drill, Progression & modification
Practice each exercise through progression and determine level.
Practice modifications that might include:
* Avoid hip flexion greater than or equal to 90°.
* Avoid combination of hip flexion, adduction, and internal rotation.
* Avoid crossing midline in front or behind.
* Decrease lower body range of motion & speed of moves.
* Strengthen hip extensors & abductors.
* Monitor pool entry/exit, watch for hip range of motion using ladders.
* Wear water shoes to prevent jarring and avoid falls.
Phase 3: Training
Monday: New skills introduced and practiced. Previous skills performed.
Wednesday: Skills reviewed and new skills progressed to determine level
Previous skills worked through progression for training
Friday: Combine skills working them through progressions and checking
Check to see how the client is doing and adjust intensity or modify
if there is an abnormal response.
Task 3: General conditioning, sit to stand and walking. Modify for
Format for thermalregulation and 60% ADL, 40% general conditioning
1. Walking Warm-up (walking & general) <ADL & General>
2. Joint energy (walking & general ROM) <ADL & General>
3. Go easy/go hard (general cardioendurance) <General>
4. Walk & clock squats (sit-to-stand, walking) <ADL>
5. Leash & Walk (walking) <ADL>
6. Step Squats (sit-to-stand) <ADL>
7. Fluid Ribbons (general ROM) <General>
8. Kickboard Walks (walking) <ADL>
9. Step Clock Squats (sit-to-stand) <ADL>
10. Fluid warmdown (ROM) <General>
Your basic program can vary, but should include 6 ADL and 4 General
exercises sequenced correctly to keep students warm. This sample
answer includes 7
ADL exercises and 5 general conditioning exercises, alternating low
exercises with higher intensity thermal generating (warming up) activity.
Task 4: Lesson plan depends on your facility.
Section 7: Responsive Coaching
Task 1: Swelling in the leg is an indication that they need to be referred
back to their
health care provider. When they are cleared for exercise, reduce
intensity and modify
according to the guidelines for their condition.
Task 2: Mind/Body:
Press heels down to the bottom and feel the stretch in your calf.
Pull shoulders down and back and feel your shoulder blades squeeze
Push the water and feel it work against your body.
Positive, specific, corrective feedback:
Good neutral wrist position, now relax the grip on the bar for comfort.
Nice job on your body alignment, now try to extend your legs and enlarge
walk, using the same posture.
Good extension on your triceps press, now exhale as you push the hand
Task 3: Teach the activity described in the text.
Task 4: Journal responses
Positive- She feels good during the class.
Her sit to stand and balance are improving.
She has lost weight, feels generally stronger and enjoys the people.
Challenges - After class she aches and is tired, especially feeling it in
her back and legs.
It hurts to walk and the discomfort lasts until the next class.
January 11, 1997 (always include a date)
Congratulations on your weight loss and new feelings of strength and
improved balance! I
notice that during class you work especially hard and would like to have
you use the 4 S's
more often to reduce intensity. Let's have you slow down a little
and take more frequent
breaks to help reduce your after class feelings of fatigue. Also,
together let's make an
effort to check you posture more frequently to see if your back pain is
due to posture that
needs correction. Instead of traveling sometimes, perform the
exercises stationary to
reduce intensity too. Be sure that you are drinking water during
class! I can see from
your wonderful smile that you really do enjoy the people in class and I
know that you have
made others feel special too. Thanks for being such a good member of the
Team! Let me know how you feel next week so we can see if this new
plan works out.
Positive - She sleeps much better and her friends see a better postural
alignment during her
land activities. Moving to deeper water has helped minimize knee
aches. She has reduced
back pain and improved kidney function. Her resting pulse has
decreased which is an
indicator of health improvement. She loves the class!
Challenges - Her ankles sometimes swell after class? and her skin is dry.
Wow! Congratulations! A reduction in your resting pulse rate means
you are generally
healthier! You confirm that fact by your other observations -
reduced back fatigue and
better kidney output. Your friends are great to notice your new and
which shows that the training does indeed transfer to better living on the
swelling after class, could be due to some fluid pooling. Try
walking around every so
often during the day, it may have nothing to do with your exercise program
but see if this
helps. If that does not help, perhaps you need to reduce your impact
even more during
class or during your daily activities. Try to avoid rebound next
week and lets see if
anything helps. My dermatologist suggests that before class you shower so
the dry skin
absorbs the clean water instead if the pool water that is treated.
After class he suggests to
shower with clear water and apply Vaseline while the skin is still wet to
help seal in the
moisture. If you have the time a warm (not hot) bath with baby oil
also does wonders to
stop the dryness. Let me know how your ankles are next week and if
any of the skin ideas
are reliving the itch! You are a model student for all who are in
the class and for your
friends who see you only on the land. Hopefully we can get them into
the pool too
someday! Keep up the good work.
**Trainer note - You'll need to check this student's health history.
Swelling could be an
indicator of a worsening condition. She may need to be referred to her