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Here are the study guide answers for 3 videos:
Introduction to the WaterFit/Speedo Aquatic Fitness System
Video Course #1

Section 1, Part A: Study Guide Suggested Answers

1. F.I.T.T. principle - When designing an exercise program consider the following:
Frequency (how often to work out), Intensity (how hard to work), Time (how long is the
workout) and  Type of activity, to determine if the program will meet suggested guidelines
for training by the ACSM or your health care provider. p. 6.

2. Deep Water - Water depth measured on the individual "standing" in a vertical
position, when the lungs are submerged, usually about armpit depth and deeper.  At this
depth, the feet may be touching the bottom lightly or not at all. p.6.
Hydrophobic - Fear of water. p.7.
Hydrostatic pressure - Is the pressure exerted by the fluid on any object immersed in a
fluid. Hydrostatic pressure exerts a multi-dimensional force which is proportional to the
depth.  The deeper into the water we go, the more pressure is exerted at the bottom of the
object. The net result is an upward force in the object, which results in the buoyant force
upwards (Brancazio, 1984). p. 7.
Properties of water - The unique characteristics of water that affect the body during
exercise in water including inertia, buoyancy, action/reaction, and form, frictional and
wave drag resistance. p.9.
Shallow water depth - Water that is navel to nipple depth measured with the individual
standing on the bottom of the pool. p.10.
Transitional depth water - Is defined as a depth that is nipple to neck depth, where the
lungs are submerged and the feet can touch the bottom. p.11.
Water fitness or water exercise program - Exercises performed primarily in a vertical
orientation in shallow or deep water.  This type of exercise program usually does not
include swimming skills, which are based on efficient propulsion horizontally through the
water.  Water exercise instead uses movements that amplify drag by unstreamlining the
body to create resistance.  The goal of this program is to create sufficient intensity to
provide fitness training adaptations in oxygen consumption (V02), muscular
strength/endurance, flexibility and body composition. p.11.
Water specific - Movements, exercises or equipment designed to amplify the properties
of water by changing the water's effect on the body. p.11.

3. Abduction - To move laterally away from the midline of the body, drawing
AWAY from the midline of the body. p.5.
Adduction - To move medially toward the midline of the body, drawing INTO the
midline of the body. p.5.
Extension - To straighten or increase the angle between two joints, return to anatomical
position (or neutral position) from flexion. p.6.
Flexion - To bend or decrease the angle between two parts, drawing of two body parts
together. p.7
Functional position - The least painful, most stable position of the spine for each
particular activity or exercise. p.7.
Hyperextension - Extending beyond anatomical position or neutral joint position.p.8.

4. Eccentric contraction - A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens,
and is overcome by a resistance (ACE, 1991). p.6
Glenohumeral & Scapular Muscles - The muscle group that provides full range of
motion of the scapulohumeral and scapular motion for normal overhead elevation of the
arm in flexion or in abduction and include: Full range, lateral rotation - Pectoralis major
and minor, Latissimus dorsi, Teres major and minor, and Subscapularis; Full range, medial
rotation - Teres minor, Infraspinatus and Posterior Deltoid. p.7.
Isometric contraction - A contraction in which a muscle exerts force but does not change
in length. p. 8.
Muscular strength training - The type of training that is developed by using heavy
weight (that requires maximum or nearly maximum tension development) with few
repetitions. p. 8.
Muscular endurance  -  According to ACSM, it is the time limit of a person's ability to
maintain a specific force or power level while performing muscular work. This type of
training is best developed by using lighter weights with a greater number of repetitions.

5. ACSM Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Fitness for healthy adults (1998a):
Frequency: 3-5 days per week
Intensity: 55 to 65% - 90% maximum heart rate (HR max)
or 40 to 50%-85% maximum oxygen uptake reserve (V02 R) or heart rate
max reserve.
* The lower intensity values, i.e., 55-65% of HRmax or 40-49% of V02R
or heart rate max reserve, are most applicable to unfit people.
20-60 minutes continuous or intermittent (minimum of 10 minute bouts
accumulated throughout the day).
Lower intensity activity should be performed 30 minutes or more, while
people doing higher intensity training should train at least 20 minutes or
"Total fitness" is achieved more effectively with exercise sessions of longer
durations.  Higher intensity sessions may place participants at higher risk
for injury and be perceived as being "too hard", resulting in poor
attendance or high drop out rates.  "Moderate intensity activity of longer
duration is recommended for adults not training for athletic competition."

Type/Mode: Any activity that uses large muscle groups continuously and is rhythmical
and aerobic in nature. Walking, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing,
stair climbing, aerobic dance exercise, endurance game activities.

Older Adult Recommendations (ACSM, 1998b):
Maximizing the quality and amount of physical activity in the life of an older adult includes
adding the same types of cardiorespiratory exercises as those recommended for younger
adults.  These activities should be included regularly in an active lifestyle to reduce the rate
of age-related declines in numerous physical functions. The Center for Disease Control
and the ACSM recommend the lifestyle activities be performed at an intensity of light to
moderate. However, to make improvements in the cardiovascular system, moderate or
high intensity exercise may be required. 

Exercise Recommendations for the Very Old and Frail Populations (ACSM, 1998b):
Aerobic training is the most difficult prescription for this age group due to the many
physical challenges and difficulties in being able to move safely and effectively.
Minimal muscle power must first be developed to perform tasks like getting out of a chair,
and maintaining erect posture while moving through space.  It is suggested that for this
population, in order to prepare the body for more aerobic activity, first improve strength,
joint stability and balance. When moderate intensity aerobic training can begin, the
guidelines are as follows:

Frequency: 3 days per week
Intensity: Fairly light to somewhat hard
Time: At least 20 minutes
Type/Mode: Due to the functional nature, walking is preferred.  Intensity can be
progressed by walking hills or stairs. Water exercise and water walking are also
recommended.  Additional overload can be achieved by performing dance movements or
pushing a weighted or occupied wheelchair.  Alternative may include arm or leg ergometry
machines and seated stepping machines.

Section 1, Part B:
1. Sternocleidomastoid Forearm extensors
Trapezius (superior) Gluteus medius, maximus
Levator scapulae Hamstrings
Trapezius (medial) Gastrocnemius
Rhomboid (minor, major) Deltoid (posterior,middle)
Teres major Erectus spinae
Trapezius (inferior) Triceps brachii
Latissimus dorsi

2. Rectus Abdominus, Obliques, Erector spinae

3. a. Shoulder Abduction
    b.  Hip extension
    c.  Plantar flexion
    d.  Neck rotation

4. a. Trapezius, Deltoids, Biceps, Wrist flexors, possibly pectorals

b. Scapular elevation, shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, wrist
flexion, possible shoulder horizontal adduction.

c. Triceps, Latissimus dorsi to stabilize load above the ground.

d. Trapezius, Deltoids, Biceps, Wrist flexors, possibly pectorals
e. All the muscles in the shoulder girdle and upper back, along
with the trunk core stabilizers.

5. Muscles of the upper back, the trunk corset and gluteal groups.

Section 1, Part C:

1. b. elicit a training intensity below ACSM guidelines for cardiorespiratory
2 d. energy requirements would be the same for both environments.
3. b. maintenance of their current 5K race time.
4. b. have been shown to improve skills such as sit to stand, balance and agility.
5. a. higher than on land.
6. b. improved for both deep-water running and treadmill running on land.
7. a. steady state.

Section 2 : Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. Land: Gravity constantly affects the body downward
Environment is fairly constant against the body
Air resistance is negligible

Water: Effect of gravity against the body varies with water depth and individual
body compositions
Water currents and hydrostatic pressure creates a variety of dynamic sensations
against the body.
Water resistance is greater than air and varies with the speed and size of the
surface area moving through it. p. 51.

2. Muscular conditioning- Resistance can be increased or decreased using small
variations in speed and surface area.

Cardiorespiratory endurance - Heart rates may be different during exercise in
water when compared to a land exercise performed at the same V02 intensity.  Use
a combination of heart rates along with RPE and the "talk test" to monitor

Flexibility - Teach functional ranges of motion using the support of buoyancy,  so
participants work within a safe range for health.

Functional training for activities of daily living - Buoyancy provides support for
balance skills in shallow water, while functional activities such as "sweeping" can
be performed using the resistance of water.  Be sure that the training drill uses the
properties to create a training effect that improves land skills. p. 52.

3. Positive: Relaxation, pain reduction, increased range of motion, strength, power
and endurance, improved cardiovascular endurance and feeling of well-being.

Contraindications: Individuals with diminished respiratory functions or capacity, Bladder
or vaginal infections, Hypertension, Severe hypotension, Infectious diseases, known
allergies to infectious diseases, and Post-surgery open wounds. p.53.

4. Gravitational forces are decreased with water depth changes:
Waist depth (lungs not submerged)--50% decrease; feet are used as a
base of support .

Above xiphoid process, lungs submerged --85%
decrease;  feet less stable base of support.

Neck-deep water-90% decrease; without buoyancy equipment, feet less
stable base of support, suspended with buoyancy equipment feet are not
a base of support.

Properties: Buoyancy and Hydrostatic Pressure

5. Hydrostatic pressure makes breathing more difficult. 

Cue your students to breathe, fully inflating the lungs against the pressure. Watch
that students don't hold their breath.

Teach your students that their body will normally rise on inhalation and descend
with exhalation.
6. Land Exercise: Water Exercise:
Assisted Resisted Assisted Resisted
Triceps Biceps Abductors Adductors
Abdominals Erector spinae Deltoids Latissimus  Dorsi
Adductors Abductors Biceps Triceps
Latissimus Deltoids

7. Power is the rate of doing work, where the time required to do a given amount
of work is part of the equation (power = work done/time).  Power is the result of
exerting more force during a movement.

8. Decrease-
speed, decreasing water's resistance on the body
size of the movement, decreasing the drag of the surface area
stop traveling to decrease affect of water's currents against the body

9. Freeze frame:  Shallow depth. Walking to jogging in a variety of directions and
styles (Zig Zag, Scoot Giant steps, walk backwards) and give a 1, 2, 3, count to FREEZE
or stop.  Stabilize against the pushing and pulling current.  Progress the challenge by
standing on one leg or bringing your arms out of the water on the FREEZE.

Stork Stance:  Partner work.  One partner stationary sculling for stability as the
other partner runs around her (both directions) creating a current.  Progress the drill by
standing on one leg and then bring arms out of the water.  Feel the core stabilizers engage
and help provide stability against the turbulence. Change roles.

Jog back and forth, changing directions without allowing the current to
subside, increase the repeating pattern and increase the speed.  Feel it become harder
and harder to continue to push against the current.  What training objective  could you
target by performing this drill?

Inertia Circle:  Work a circle moving in the same direction.  Feel the current carry you
along.  Reverse the direction and move into the current and feel the difference.

The Snake:  Work a snake in single or double lines and feel the directional changes of
the current challenge your balance and create work, as you power through the water.

10. Traveling in the center or back of the group may be less work than
leading, due to the strong currents.  Put the stronger students on the outside of
the group, but be watchful of the weaker students that may be carried along and
even knocked off their feet! p. 60.

11. Walk forward with a bent knee.  Stop. Stabilize.  Walk forward extending the
leg and pulling it down (lead with the heel) as you move forward.  Resistance

Stationary jog, sculling for balance and stability, extend the leg and kick in front.
Resistance increases

Rock side to side, arms pressing out at sides, extend the legs to a kick side to side
extending the arms long and working in opposition. Resistance increases

Rock forward and back, sculling at sides, enlarge the move and extend the front leg,
enlarge the scull for balance. Resistance increases

Neutral stance, arms short lever (movement from elbow) "playing the piano" extend the
arms to long lever (movement from shoulder) and continue playing. (Watch for proper
alignment of the extended position.  Don't lean forward!) Resistance increases

Section 3: Study Guide Suggested Answers

1. Facility Check.
Check for good condition: lighting, signs, general maintenance/upkeep.
Pool entry, deck surfaces, bottom surfaces, gutters, grates and electrical safety.
Depth markers, safety ropes, safety equipment should be in good condition.
Environment:  air and water temperatures, weather, shower facilities and chemical
balance of water should be clean and within safety standards.

Staff Safety Training. 
Teach personal safety skills for the client; buddy system and recovery to a stand/float.
Develop teamwork with the professional rescue staff.
Development of an effective emergency system with pool staff and community EMS
(Emergency Medical System).
Document injury or incident occurrences.
   Listen to clients to keep the program healthy using personal health
assessments, liability releases.

2. Parking Lot -  well lit, entry way easily identifiable, curbs easily seen?
Lobby - clean, signs adequate?
Dressing Rooms -clean, good lighting, adequate storage for clothing.
benches, lockers, doorways in good condition, minimal standing water on floor or around
drains, floor has non-slip surface, signs to pool, showers, etc., adequate.
separate wet and dry areas for dressing and grooming?
Pool Deck-uncluttered, clear pathway to entries, depth markings easy to read,
surface of deck is not slippery, cleaned regularly, entry steps, ladders, etc. in good
condition, safety equipment in good condition, lifeguard easily identifiable and attainable.
emergency phone easily accessible, spine board and first aid equipment readily accessible?
Pool -water is clean and bottom of pool is easily visible, smell of chlorine is
minimal, air and water temperature are close to the same (indoor), acoustics taken into
consideration before using music/microphones, entry into pool is easy for all clients.
clients are not staring into the sun at outdoor pools, pool access is fairly close to dressing

3. To ensure a safe program, instructors can-

Familiarize yourself with the facility's emergency procedures.  Train with the pool staff.
Obtain training in basic rescue and water safety techniques.  If no guard on duty while you
teach, take the extra steps of becoming certified in advanced rescue skills.

Employ the buddy system, use health screening forms, liability releases, be aware of the
development of safety hazards at the facility.

Wear waterproof sunscreen , sunglasses, hat, and protective clothing when exposed to
extended periods of sun.  The reflection of the sun on the water is intense and powerful.

When assessing an emergency situation, remember that the victim's safety is dependent on
your good judgment.  Maintain your own margin of safety.  Keep something between you
and the victim at all times.

Train in spinal injury management and primary life sustaining assistance (CPR).  95% of
water related spinal injuries occur in the shallow end.

Use visual cues to communicate when acoustics are difficult.  Save your voice.

Protect your feet and legs on the pool deck and the pool bottom by wearing supportive
footwear .
Be familiar with the proper use of any equipment you use to enhance your program.  If
you are wearing equipment be sure that your mobility to assist a student is not impaired.

Have all equipment, music and other supplies at pool side before students arrive.  NEVER
leave the pool area unattended when participants are in the water.  THEY ARE YOUR

Three skills to teach students, making their program safer-
Teach recovery to a stand in the water in case students lose their balance.
Teach them how to use the buddy system, especially for non-swimmers.
Guide them to a water depth that's right for their comfort level. (and meets the
exercise objective)

4. Heat Exhaustion: Sunbathers and hot tub users can be victims if they stay too long,
and become dehydrated or overheated.  They will appear sweaty, cold, clammy. Remove
from heat source.  Cool body with wet towels, etc., give sips of water as tolerated, and

5. Identify rough or slippery areas on decks or in entries to participants.  Include this
information  in participant handout.

Instructor should avoid voice overuse and use visual cueing.
Reduce impact movements on deck, wear shock absorbent footwear.

Teach recovery to a stand in the water in case students lose their balance.
Initiate the buddy system, especially for non-swimmers.

6. Identify the pool entrance/exits and contour (depth) and working area.
Recommend wearing shoes for safety and solid footing.
Have them bring water bottles poolside for sips during class.

Emphasize that this is an individually challenging workout and to think of the
water as a trainer, the harder one presses, the harder it (the water) presses back.

Encourage students to modify or change that move to make it comfortable.

Describe how to monitor intensity using the Talk Test, RPE, Heart Rate Monitor.

Coach them find and practice neutral stance with ears, shoulder, hips, lined up.

If they begin to feel cool, suggest that they jog.

7. Train with a lifeguard on duty (if possible).
Know basic personal safety skills.

Swimming rescues with direct contact are for Trained Lifeguards only
Know how to remove a person from the water to administer CPR if necessary.

Have a pool side phone to be able to contact EMS if necessary.

Include reciprocal training for safety if you plan to go into the water with your

Equip the site with tools such as a shepherd's crook. 

8. What are the objectives for the class, exercise or student?
What property of water creates the work?
Is the exercise or program safe and effective?
Are my students staying warm? 
Can we do this better or differently? 

Section 4: Study Guide Suggested Answers

1. Recovery to a stand:
For a fall backwards: Pull one knee to the chest, scoop arms under and forward,
lift the chin up and stand.
For a fall backwards: Turn head to the side, roll to back and repeat the skill for fall

2. External or factors such as temperature and buoyancy may affect heart rate.
Heart rate may not accurately reflect intensity.  Lower rates may "push"
participants to overwork.
Concepts may not be easily explained or understood. A heart rate chart with
adjusted rates should be easily accessible for reference.
It may be difficult for participants to accurately find a pulse.

3. Include lower body movement in the exercise.
Wear extra clothing such as a thermal vest or tights.
Drink water to stay hydrated.

4. TO -
increase the surface area of  hands for effective support and balance
assist with upper body posture.
enhance action/reaction, to help with changes direction or adjust body positions. 
provide,  "on demand"  variable resistance for upper body muscular conditioning.

5. Movement example: Scissors Traveling forward

Slow down, make the movement smaller and stop traveling (hold stationary)
Modify by walking legs forward and backward or by using hand buoys for upper
body support.

Copyright WaterFit, 2000.  All right reserved.

Specificity of Training & Deep Water

Section 1, Part A: Study Guide Suggested Answers
1. Name 3 land activities that would be effective for targeting cardiorespiratory
Walking, bike riding, running, skiing

2. List 3 water specific movements that target cardiorespiratory fitness.
Walking, Scissors, Jumping, Jogging manipulated through the S.W.E.A.T. formula

3. Name 3 training methods for targeting cardiorespiratory fitness.
Continuous, Interval and Go Easy/Go Hard (intervals paced by individual)

4. Name 4 muscles that need strengthening.

Muscles that need Strengthening:
Anterior Tibialis
Latissimus Dorsi
Deltoids (Posterior)
Erector Spinae

5. Name 4 muscles that need stretching.
Muscles that need Stretching:
Quadriceps/Ilio Psoas
Upper Trapezius
Deltoids (anterior)
Erector Spinae

6. When targeting muscular conditioning, it's important to stay warm while working
an isolated muscle group.  What are 3 ways to stay warm while performing
muscular work in water?
Jog in a stationary position or use the legs vigorously during the exercises
Travel during muscular work
Alternate stationary sets with active cardio sets

7. Briefly explain the application of S.W.E.A.T. for targeting muscular strength &
endurance exercises.

Use the "S" in the formula to increase resistance.
Adjust surface area of the limbs or add surface area equipment for overload.
Adjust speed to increase or decrease resistance levels.
Find the speed, surface area and resistance level where you feel the work is "hard"
or "somewhat hard".

Use the "W" in the formula to progress resistance.
Change working positions Rebound, Neutral, Suspended to target different lower
body muscle groups.
In shallow water, use "squats" and fast "sit to stand ups" to overload upper body
groups such as Latissimus Dorsi (squats) and Deltoids (sit to stand up).
In deep water, use "power pops" to overload Latissimus Dorsi during upper body
work and Gluteaus Maximus during a "power pop" scissors.

Use the "E" in the formula for functional strength.
Enlarge the joint range of motion, contracting the muscles through full range of
motion.  For maximum benefit and strength, muscles should be trained through the
entire range (Graves, 1989).

??? the "A", working Around the joint,  in the formula???
It's important to isolate the muscles targeted for work.  Changing planes only
slightly may still target the same muscle groups, but in a slightly different way,
using slightly different fibers.  Remember, specificity of training.  The muscles will
get stronger in the plane and range of motion that they are trained, so be sure to
target functional ranges and planes for better living on land.

Use the "T" in the formula to progress resistance higher.
To overload further after speed and surface area have been maximized or to
overload stabilizing groups such as the abdominals, travel in the same direction as
the power phase, or use the power phase effort to push or pull the body through
the water, dragging the entire body for overload.

8. Briefly explain the difference between Flexibility and Range of Motion.

Flexibility is the range of motion possible about a joint. (ACE, 1991).
Range of Motion is the number of degrees that a joint will allow one of it's segments to
move(ACE, 1991).

9. How is the "W" of the S.W.E.A.T. formula used when targeting a flexibility
Use the "W" to vary impact and range of motion.

Moves such as scissors and jax can be worked in neutral or suspended positions
(students can wear buoyancy belts), to focus on range of motion and minimize

10. In shallow water, what muscle is being stretched during this exercise?
One leg extended forward, hips back.  Give 2 progressions for this stretch.

Hamstrings stretch progression (in shallow water)
Low In shallow water, extend leg forward, heel on the floor, hips back
Hop on 1 leg, Neutral position moving backwards (T.):
Extend leg forward, push hips back and "crawl them up the wall" (E. T.).
Stop traveling and assist stretch with a step, push down and release.
Assist stretch with stable buoyancy equipment placed under the thigh (S.).
Assist stretch with buoyancy placed near ankle (S.E.).
Leap sideways in neutral position, traveling across the pool, enlarging
each time.  Leap diagonally and repeat. (S.W.E.A.T.).

11. What type of fitness objective would target weight control and a healthy body
composition?  Give 3 examples of ways to target this objective in the water.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training
Scissors through S.W.E.A.T. formula in deep or shallow water
Jogging through S.W.E.A.T. formula in shallow or deep water
Jumping in shallow water through S.W.E.A.T.
Bicycling in deep water varied through S.W.E.A.T.

12. List 3 activities of daily living (ADL) on land and list an exercise progression in the
water that could provide training for performance gains.
Stair climbing:
Use the Aquatic step to practice stepping up and down, progress by increasing the
speed and number of repetitions.

Begin by walking through water in shallow water and progress by increasing the
speed, enlarging the size of the step and traveling faster

Rock side to side and gradually increase the range of motion and then travel the
move sideways.

Section 1, Part B: Study Guide Suggested Answers

1. List 4 examples of how the water properties affect the body differently when
comparing shallow water to deep water.

Properties such as action/reaction produce a more pronounced response
Shallow water speeds may be more difficult to achieve in deep water.
Balance is balanced between the chest and the hips in deep water due to buoyancy.

Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth.  There is greater pressure with greater
submersion which may make breathing feel more difficult and may give the sensation of
working at a higher intensity than is actually being achieved

The viscosity of deep water will feel heavier.  Movements may not be performed as
quickly in deep water and the instructor may need to slow down transitions so balance can
be adjusted.

Speed and acceleration may be limited by the increase in resistance, exaggerated
action/reaction of movement through the water and eddy resistance.

 Buoyancy is exaggerated and is more difficult to overcome while working to gain
sufficient speed to achieve appropriate intensity. 

2. List 5 basic moves used to create deep water exercises.
Jogging-- legs working from the hip using an up/down motion.
Bicycling-- legs work from the hip: up, around & down.

3. What is the deep water acronym used as a reminder of a deep water orientation?
(List the skill that each letter represents.)

A.B.Y.S.S. S., Deep water orientation and proper body alignment

A. = Adjust the buoyancy for neutral stance.
B. = Breathe against hydrostatic pressure.
Y. = Yield to the bottomless environment.
S. = Scull (balance and locomotion).
S. = Synergize or coordinate arms and legs.
S. = Safety Skills practice.

4. The "W" in the deep water is different than in shallow water.  List 3 differences.
W. = Working positions:

Body position in relation to the surface of the water
Arm positions in relation to the surface:
"Power Pops" are  vertical propulsion work, using powerful leg
moves to lift the body upwards and catch before descending

5. What property of water makes traveling in transitional depth more difficult?

6. What are the 2 ways to work transitional depth?

1. Shallow water moves, modified for the new depth and additional buoyancy. 
2. By using a buoyancy belt, you can combine both shallow and deep water
modified movements to maximize this versatile water depth.

7. List 2 modifications of shallow water exercises when performed in transitional

Walking: Movement speed is slower due to buoyancy
Hands work near the waist, using a breaststroke action, with thumbs up,  to get
enough speed to propel the body forward.  In this depth, the work is primarily
performed by the arms, because buoyancy is so great, the feet are not effective for

Jogging: Scull near the hips to increase lift, and release travel jogging with vertical
propulsion jogs to maximize intensity.  Land tall.

Kicking: Scull near the hips, use scooping to pull hips down for balance during a
kick to the rear.  Check kick height to prevent going beyond a safe range of
motion.  Land tall.

Rocking:  Instead of leaning forward and back away from the body center, rock by
standing tall, working from the trunk, so you can land tall and optimize range of

Jumping:  Use the scoop motion with the hands on landing to bring legs quickly
back down to the bottom.

Scissors:  Start tall and center, use a flat scull and jump to a scissors, suspended.
Land tall in the center and repeat the jump scissors leading with the other leg.

Section 2: Study Guide Suggested Answers:

1. What are the 3 important responsibilities of a responsive teacher?
To teach the skills correctly
To coach progressions using positive, specific, corrective feedbncak
To respond with modifications

2. List 3 positive reasons for teaching from the deck.
Easy to see students and provide feedback.
Provides quick visual cues with less instructor voice stress.
Allows the instructor to observe students and pace the workout
according to their fitness level.
New students tend to learn the skills more quickly with visual and
verbal teaching.

3. List some deck tools you might use to help you teach more effectively and

Shoes, a stool, hand support, microphone

4. Cueing for proper body alignment and intensity regulation are two important
coaching tips for your students.  What are some good verbal cues for these 2

Body alignment cues: Chin in, chest up, shoulders down and back; Ears, shoulders,
hips lined up.

Intensity regulation cues:
4 S's:
S= Slow Down
S= make the move Smaller
S= Stabilize and check balance and posture
S= Substitute with another similar move if you feel discomfort.

5. What would be the most effective teaching method for deep water and why?
Deck teaching allows students to see you and for you to see your students so
responsive teaching can be used.

Section 3: Study Guide Suggested Answers

1. You arrive to teach class and see that the pool water is the clarity of pond scum.
Is this a problem and if so, what would you do?
Check with the facility attendant to find an alternative site to conduct a dryland
class or lecture.
Find out what the problem is and when it will be corrected.
Discuss the plan for a dryland class or canceling class with students.

2. Your pool operator says the water temperature is 88 F.  Why is this
information important and how will it affect your workout?

Moderate to vigorous level activity  82-85 degree F. The water is warm for this
level of activity, you will need to modify your program for safety by reducing the level of
intensity and check for good hydration.

3. What are 3 reasons to add equipment to your program?

Progressive overload
Modification for safer, more effective performance
Variety and fun!

4. Name 3 items you might include in your pre-class announcement.
Your name.
Perform a quick survey of  health issues you need to know. 
Explain the class format
Review equipment being used
Cue proper depth for the class and possible modifications for special

5. The water temperature is 79F, how would you warm-up your class?
Cold Water Temperatures (below 82F): Light & Loose Traveling, Jogging Active
Stretching...get them moving!

6. Name the major muscle groups being dynamically stretched in each of the
following exercises:
a. "Jogging with the heels coming up behind the hips". Quadriceps
b. "Breaststroke arms". Upper back and chest (as you pull arms back)
c.  Kick in front...in neutral position". Hamstrings
7. The students in your class would like to lose weight, make their tummy flatter, be
able to get out of a chair and the bathtub easier and be able to walk faster.
Using the class blueprint, put together a lesson plan for each of these fitness

Lose weight Set: Cardio work
Perform Scissors through all components of S.W.E.A.T. formula

Chair stand and bathtub exit: Lower body muscular endurance
Perform Squats in shallow water. Progress to squats on 1 leg.

Faster walking: Power, and cardio work
Perform Walking through the S.W.E.A.T. formula, emphasizing variations in

8. Give 4 examples of equipment that could be used for its surface area.
Webbed gloves

9. Why is it important to use buoyancy equipment in deep water?
Provide rest and balanced exercises that do not always have to produce lift.
Encourage proper alignment
Accommodate various body types in one class comfortably
To offer a wider variety of exercises possible.

10. What are 3 objectives for the cardiorespiratory warm-up?

The objective is to progressively increase intensity to enhance deep muscle
temperature and elevate heart rate into the lower end of the training zone. The cardio
warm-up also progresses stationary moves up the intensity scale and helps students adjust
to buoyancy.

Golden Waves, Leadership Course,  Study Guide Suggested Answers

Section 3: Physical Activity and Aging
Task 1:
Decreased ability to balance
Less fear of bumping into others
Swelling due to decreased efficiency of blood vessels
Regulatory systems to regulate body temperature are less efficient
Susceptibility to fractures
Gentle support for safer flexibility work

Task 2:
Cardiorespiratory training
Muscular strength & endurance
Flexibility training
Functional training

Task 3:
Total Hip replacement- Water's buoyancy can assist with balance and support.
Shoulder, Rotator Cuff injury - Water's resistance can be adjusted during range of
motion work for the shoulder and when ready, increases in speed and surface area can
increase resistance for muscular endurance work in the same movement.
Low Back Pain - Buoyancy can be used to regulate impact.

Section 4: ADL Exercise Design Considerations
Task1: Exercise Evaluation and Design
Stair climbing
Hip flexion/extension, trunk flexion/extension, neutral spine
Shallow water
Strengthen: Quadiceps/hamstrings, Gluteals; Erector spinae, abdominals, obiliques;
Trapezius, Latissimus dorsi.
Stretch: Quadiceps/hamstrings; Hip flexors; Pectorals
Pattern: Hip flexion and extension/trunk flexion and extension

Section 5: Exercise Skills & Progressions
Part A
Three key points about sculling:
Keep hands fairly flat and under water
Spread fingers like a duck's webbed foot
Move from the center of the body out to about should width

Three reminders for good posture:
Keep chest and head up
Pull shoulders down and back
Keep stomach in and hips pulled under

Part B: Exercise Objectives, Patterns and Coordination Analysis
Set 1:
Flat scull in front of the body near the surface
Flat scull low at the hips

Flat scull in front of the body
Hands push and pull in opposition

Work arms and legs in opposition
Flat scull in the front

Work opposite arms and legs
Flat scull in front

Flat scull
Push down to assist upwards

Set 4: Sit to Stand
Squat, shoulders down & back. Go suspended, hold, curl and stand. Walk.

Set 5: Stair climbing & balance
Flat scull with hands
Hold buoyancy bells or wear a buoyancy belt

Part B: Exercise Progression Evaluation
Task 3:
Tug 0' War
One person stands as an anchor
Both participants go suspended

Walk & Jog Clock Squats Progression:
Hand work in the water for balance
Hands work above the surface
Walk diagonally

Sit to Stand Progressions
Squat and stand
Squat on the step
Clock squat, off then on top of the step

Sit to Stand Leashing
Squat, hold, then curl and stand
Squat, hold, then curl, stand and walk with tugs by the partner

Set 5: Stair Climbing & Balance

Step Climb Up & Down:
Increase speed
Step from various directions
Take hands out of the water

Step Climb Freeze Frame:
Increase speed
Take hands out of the water
Go from balance & hold using 2 legs to single leg stands

Step Jump, Freeze and Walk:
Increase speed
Increase height of jump
Take hands out of water on the hold & balance

Designing Exercise Modifications
Set 1: Walking Warm-up: Three modification for low back pain:
Limit the size of the movement, especially hip extension
Use a buoyancy belt for balance and trunk support
Work arms and legs in straight planes and near the body if needed

Set 2: Joint Energy Range of Motion: Post-Mastectomy modifications
Limit size of movement and speed. Work on control and quality of
Work without gloves, decrease intensity
Decrease time and number of repetitions

Set 3: Cardio Set: Cardiovascular disease modifications
Limit Speed
Limit size of movement
Perform the work stationary if needed

Set 4: Freeze Frame: Stroke recovery modifications
Wear a buoyancy belt
Coordinate hands for more balance, limit size of lower body moves
Limit range of motion

Set 5: Liquid Resistance for Upper Body: Neck Pain Modifications
Shorten the lever
Decrease Speed
Reduce intensity and perhaps remove webbed gloves

Set 6: Play Ball! Gripping, Reaching & Coordination: Modifications for frail
Increase water depth
Work hands in the water at all times
Reduce time gripping

Set 7: Liquid Chores for fun! Low back pain modifications
Reduce the size of the moves (bring arms and legs in closer to the body)
Allow more time between movement changes and check frequently for
proper body alignment.
Limit speed and begin progressions without using equipment.

Designing Exercise Modifications, Part B

Set 1: Warm-up Progressions. Modifications for arthritis.
Jogging: Keep movements in neutral or suspended or wear a buoyancy
Increase depth to decrease impact
Kicking: Use a buoyancy belt to decrease impact
Hold buoyancy bells for support
Rocking: Decrease range of motion
Limit speed
Scissors: Work in neutral position
Limit range of motion
Jumping: Wear a buoyancy belt
Work in neutral position and limit range of motion

Set 2: Cardio Endurance Intervals. Modifications for obese students.
Limit time in suspended and rebound
Work in waist depth water for control
Limit time working high intensity

Set 3: Walking & Balance. Total hip replacement modifications.
Avoid combination of hip flexion and adduction with internal rotation
Decrease lower body range of motion.
Decrease speed to limit intensity if needed.

Set 4: Sit to Stand. Total hip replacement.
Decrease the range of motion of the squat (do not go beyond 90 degrees)
Limit diagonal moves that would include hip flexion and adduction with
internal rotation.
Use buoyancy belt or buoys for support.
Set 5: Stair climbing & balance. Total knee replacement modifications.
Use ski poles or buoyancy bells for balance
Wear a buoyancy belt to decrease impact and weight bearing
Work in straight planes and limit speed to reduce water currents

Set 6: Agility & balance. Modifications for fear of water
Wear a buoyancy belt for support
Hold 2 kickboards
Have the student work in quiet water (no waves) to avoid splashing.

Set 7: Postural Training. Modifications for hypertension.
Decrease intensity by working without gloves or equipment.
Limit repetitions
Encourage rests as needed (active resting by walking to stay warm)

Set 8: Resistance band progressions. Modifications for Arthritis.
Limit gripping time
Give frequent breaks to rest the hands
Work without the band or using a lower intensity band if the joint feels

Set 9: Lifting, reaching and moving things around. Modifications for rotator cuff
Limit range of motion
Perform the move without weight to decrease overload
Limit repetitions

Set 10: Range of motion & Flexibility. Modified for limited shoulder range of
Hold a buoyant dumbbell for support, may be on the affected side only.
Wear a buoyancy belt for full body support.
Work in neutral position for more support and limit arm range of motion.

Section 6: Training formats
Task 1: This is an individual task.  Apply your own facility to the concepts
discussed previously in this chapter.

Task 2: Target objective: balance modified for hip replacement client.
Phase 1: Skills development
Develop skills for balance exercises that could include:
Joint Energy
Freeze frame
Play Ball and grip

Phase 2: Skills, Drill, Progression & modification
Practice each exercise through progression and determine level.
Practice modifications that might include:
* Avoid hip flexion greater than or equal to 90.
* Avoid combination of hip flexion, adduction, and internal rotation.
* Avoid crossing midline in front or behind.
* Decrease lower body range of motion & speed of moves.
* Strengthen hip extensors & abductors.
* Monitor pool entry/exit, watch for hip range of motion using ladders.
* Wear water shoes to prevent jarring and avoid falls.

Phase 3: Training
Monday: New skills introduced and practiced. Previous skills performed.
Wednesday: Skills reviewed and new skills progressed to determine level
Modifications determined.
Previous skills worked through progression for training
Friday: Combine skills working them through progressions and checking
Check to see how the client is doing and adjust intensity or modify
if there is an abnormal response.

Task 3: General conditioning, sit to stand and walking. Modify for arthritis
Format for thermalregulation and 60% ADL, 40% general conditioning
Sample answer:
1. Walking Warm-up (walking & general) <ADL & General>
2. Joint energy (walking & general ROM) <ADL & General>
3. Go easy/go hard (general cardioendurance) <General>
4. Walk & clock squats (sit-to-stand, walking) <ADL>
5. Leash & Walk (walking) <ADL>
6. Step Squats (sit-to-stand) <ADL>
7. Fluid Ribbons (general ROM) <General>
8. Kickboard Walks (walking) <ADL>
9. Step Clock Squats (sit-to-stand) <ADL>
10. Fluid warmdown (ROM) <General>

Your basic program can vary, but should include 6 ADL and 4 General conditioning
exercises sequenced correctly to keep students warm.  This sample answer includes 7
ADL exercises and 5 general conditioning exercises, alternating low intensity thermal
exercises with higher intensity thermal generating (warming up) activity.

Task 4: Lesson plan depends on your facility. 

Section 7: Responsive Coaching

Task 1: Swelling in the leg is an indication that they need to be referred back to their
health care provider.  When they are cleared for exercise, reduce intensity and modify
according to the guidelines for their condition.

Task 2: Mind/Body:
Press heels down to the bottom and feel the stretch in your calf.
Pull shoulders down and back and feel your shoulder blades squeeze together.
Push the water and feel it work against your body.

Positive, specific, corrective feedback:
Good neutral wrist position, now relax the grip on the bar for comfort.
Nice job on your body alignment, now try to extend your legs and enlarge your
walk, using the same posture.
Good extension on your triceps press, now exhale as you push the hand back.

Task 3: Teach the activity described in the text.
Task 4: Journal responses

Sample 1
Key points:
Positive- She feels good during the class.
Her sit to stand and balance are improving.
She has lost weight, feels generally stronger and enjoys the people.
Challenges - After class she aches and is tired, especially feeling it in her back and legs.
It hurts to walk and the discomfort lasts until the next class.

January 11, 1997 (always include a date)
Dear Helen,

Congratulations on your weight loss and new feelings of strength and improved balance!  I
notice that during class you work especially hard and would like to have you use the 4 S's
more often to reduce intensity.  Let's have you slow down a little and take more frequent
breaks to help reduce your after class feelings of fatigue.  Also, together let's make an
effort to check you posture more frequently to see if your back pain is due to posture that
needs correction.  Instead of traveling sometimes, perform the exercises stationary to
reduce intensity too.  Be sure that you are drinking water during class!  I can see from
your wonderful smile that you really do enjoy the people in class and I know that you have
made others feel special too. Thanks for being such a good member of the Golden Waves
Team!  Let me know how you feel next week so we can see if this new plan works out.
Sample 2
Key Points:
Positive - She sleeps much better and her friends see a better postural alignment during her
land activities.  Moving to deeper water has helped minimize knee aches. She has reduced
back pain and improved kidney function.  Her resting pulse has decreased which is an
indicator of health improvement.  She loves the class!
Challenges - Her ankles sometimes swell after class? and her skin is dry.

Dear Gail,

Wow! Congratulations!  A reduction in your resting pulse rate means you are generally
healthier!  You confirm that fact by your other observations - reduced back fatigue and
better kidney output.  Your friends are great to notice your new and improved posture
which shows that the training does indeed transfer to better living on the land!  Ankle
swelling after class, could be due to some fluid pooling.  Try walking around every so
often during the day, it may have nothing to do with your exercise program but see if this
helps.  If that does not help, perhaps you need to reduce your impact even more during
class or during your daily activities.  Try to avoid rebound next week and lets see if
anything helps. My dermatologist suggests that before class you shower so the dry skin
absorbs the clean water instead if the pool water that is treated.  After class he suggests to
shower with clear water and apply Vaseline while the skin is still wet to help seal in the
moisture.  If you have the time a warm (not hot) bath with baby oil also does wonders to
stop the dryness.  Let me know how your ankles are next week and if any of the skin ideas
are reliving the itch!  You are a model student for all who are in the class and for your
friends who see you only on the land.  Hopefully we can get them into the pool too
someday!  Keep up the good work.

**Trainer note - You'll need to check this student's health history.  Swelling could be an
indicator of a worsening condition. She may need to be referred to her health care